Science & Technology

Chris Bernhardt: Turing’s Vision: The Birth of Computer Science

Chris Bernhardt: Turing’s Vision: The Birth of Computer Science

In 1936, when he was just twenty-four years old, Alan Turing wrote a remarkable paper in which he outlined the theory of computation, laying out the ideas that underlie all modern computers. This groundbreaking and powerful theory now forms the basis of computer science. In Turing’s Vision, Chris Bernhardt explains the theory, Turing’s most important contribution, for the general reader. Bernhardt argues that the strength of Turing’s theory is its simplicity, and that, explained in a straightforward manner, it is eminently understandable by the nonspecialist. As Marvin Minsky writes, “The sheer simplicity of the theory’s foundation and extraordinary short path from this foundation to its logical and surprising conclusions give the theory a mathematical beauty that alone guarantees it a permanent place in computer theory.” Bernhardt begins with the foundation and systematically builds to the surprising conclusions. He also views Turing’s theory in the context of mathematical history, other views of computation (including those of Alonzo Church), Turing’s later work, and the birth of the modern computer.

In the paper, “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem,” Turing thinks carefully about how humans perform computation, breaking it down into a sequence of steps, and then constructs theoretical machines capable of performing each step. Turing wanted to show that there were problems that were beyond any computer’s ability to solve; in particular, he wanted to find a decision problem that he could prove was undecidable. To explain Turing’s ideas, Bernhardt examines three well-known decision problems to explore the concept of undecidability; investigates theoretical computing machines, including Turing machines; explains universal machines; and proves that certain problems are undecidable, including Turing’s problem concerning computable numbers.

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  • Will Storr: The Unpersuadables: Adventures with the Enemies of Science

    The Unpersuadables ebook downloadWill Storr: The Unpersuadables: Adventures with the Enemies of Science

    While excavating fossils in the tropics of Australia with a celebrity creationist, Will Storr asked himself a simple question. Why don’t facts work? Why, that is, did the obviously intelligent man beside him sincerely believe in Adam and Eve, the Garden of Eden and a six-thousand-year-old Earth, in spite of the evidence against them?
    It was the start of a journey that would lead Storr all over the world—from Texas to Warsaw to the Outer Hebrides—meeting an extraordinary cast of modern heretics whom he tries his best to understand. Storr tours Holocaust sites with famed denier David Irving and a band of neo-Nazis, experiences his own murder during “past life regression” hypnosis, discusses the looming One World Government an iconic climate skeptic, and investigates the tragic life and death of a woman who believed her parents were high priests in a baby-eating cult.
    Using a unique mix of highly personal memoir, investigative journalism, and the latest research from neuroscience and experimental psychology, Storr reveals how the stories we tell ourselves about the world invisibly shape our beliefs, and how the neurological “hero maker” inside us all can so easily lead to self-deception, toxic partisanship and science denial.

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  • College Physics. Student Solutions Manual

    College Physics. Student Solutions Manual by OpenStax College
    English | 2012 | ISBN: 1938168003 | 243 pages | PDF | 40 MB

    This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. College Physics includes learning objectives, concept questions, links to labs and simulations, and ample practice opportunities to solve traditional physics application problems. This book is available for free online by searching for OpenStax College Physics

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  • Lore of Large Numbers by Philip J. Davis

    Lore of Large Numbers by Philip J. Davis
    English | 1961 | ASIN: B00297WSPM | 174 Pages | PDF | 27 MB

    The numbers have always been a source of wonder, and the sequence of integers whose unending procession is contrasted with the finiteness of human experienceis surely the first place where mathematics appears as the product of soaring imagination.

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  • Antioxidants in Health and Disease

    Antonis Zampelas, Renata Micha, “Antioxidants in Health and Disease” 
    2015 | ISBN-10: 1466580038 | 340 pages | PDF | 22 MB

    Antioxidants in Health and Disease discusses the effects of dietary antioxidants and antioxidant supplementation in humans. It reviews the latest evidence-based research in the area, principally through prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

    The book assesses major dietary antioxidants and discusses their use in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, HIV/AIDS, and neurodegenerative and immune diseases. The use of antioxidants in health is also discussed along with common adverse effects associated with antioxidant use.

    Separating myth from fact, this book gives you insight into the true role of antioxidants in health and disease.

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  • Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality

    John Corvino – Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
    Published: 1997-10-16 | ISBN: 0847684822, 0847684830 | CHM | 422 pages | 1.08 MB


    Same Sex is the most comprehensive anthology on homosexuality available. It goes beyond other classroom readers to explore historical conceptions of homosexuality, homosexual identity, and a variety of public policy issues, ranging from gay marriage to outing to military service. It also examines the issues from ethical, religious, and scientific perspectives. While the authors represent a wide range of opinions on homosexuality, the anthology cuts through the emotional fervor surrounding homosexuality to offer reasoned, lucid discussion of the issues.

     

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  • Wen-Ching Yang: Handbook of Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems

    Handbook of Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems (Chemical Industries) by Wen-Ching Yang

    This reference details particle characterization, dynamics, manufacturing, handling, and processing for the employment of multiphase reactors, as well as procedures in reactor scale-up and design for applications in the chemical, mineral, petroleum, power, cement and pharmaceuticals industries.

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  • Truth and Assertibility

    Truth and Assertibility by Nik Weaver
    English | 2015 | ISBN: 9814619957 | 204 pages | PDF | 1,4 MB


    The book is a research monograph on the notions of truth and assertibility as they relate to the foundations of mathematics. It is aimed at a general mathematical and philosophical audience. The central novelty is an axiomatic treatment of the concept of assertibility. This provides us with a device that can be used to handle difficulties that have plagued philosophical logic for over a century. Two examples are Frege’s formulation of second order logic and Tarski’s characterization of truth predicates for formal languages. Both are widely recognized as fundamental advances, but both are also seen as being seriously flawed: Frege’s system, as Russell showed, is inconsistent, and Tarski’s definition fails to capture the compositionality of truth. A formal assertibility predicate can be used to repair both problems. The repairs are technically interesting and conceptually compelling. The approach in this book will be of interest not only for the uses the author has put it to, but also as a flexible tool that may have many more applications in logic and the foundations of mathematics.

    Readership: Undergraduates, graduates and researchers in mathematics, logic and philosophy.


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  • Design Thinking for Education: Conceptions and Applications in Teaching and Learning

    Design Thinking for Education: Conceptions and Applications in Teaching and Learning by Joyce Hwee Ling Koh and Ching Sing Chai
    English | 2015 | ISBN: 9812874437 | 131 pages | PDF | 1,4 MB


    This book explores, through eight chapters, how design thinking vocabulary can be interpreted and employed in educational contexts. The theoretical foundations of design thinking and design in education are first examined by means of a literature review. This is then followed by chapters that characterize design thinking among children, pre-service teachers and in-service teachers using research data collected from the authors’ design-driven coursework and projects. The book also examines issues associated with methods for fostering and assessing design thinking. In the final chapter, it discusses future directions for the incorporation of design thinking into educational settings. Intended for teachers, teacher educators and university instructors, this book aims to provide them with the theoretical foundations needed to grasp design thinking, and to provide examples of how design thinking can be interpreted and evaluated. The materials covered will help these groups of professionals to consider how design thinking can be integrated into their own teaching and learning contexts. The book will also promote a discourse between educational researchers on the theoretical development of design thinking in educational settings.

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  • Madness and Creativity

    Madness and Creativity (Carolyn and Ernest Fay Series in Analytical Psychology, Book 18) by Ann Belford Ulanov and David H. Rosen
    English | 2013 | ISBN: 1603449493 | 136 pages | EPUB | 2,6 MB


    Analyst and author Ann Belford Ulanov draws on her years of clinical work and reflection to make the point that madness and creativity share a kinship, an insight that shakes both analysand and analyst to the core, reminding us as it does that the suffering places of the human psyche are inextricably—and, often inexplicably—related to the fountains of creativity, service, and even genius. She poses disturbing questions: How do we depend on order, when chaos is a necessary part of existence? What are we to make of evil—both that surrounding us and that within us? Is there a myth of meaning that can contain all the differences that threaten to shatter us?

    Ulanov’s insights unfold in conversation with themes in Jung’s Red Book which, according to Jung, present the most important experiences of his life, themes he explicated in his subsequent theories. In words and paintings Jung displays his psychic encounters from1913–1928, describing them as inner images that “burst forth from the unconscious and flooded me like an enigmatic stream and threatened to break me.”

    Responding to some of Jung’s more fantastic encounters as he illustrated them, Ulanov suggests that our problems and compulsions may show us the path our creativity should take. With Jung she asserts that the multiplicities within and around us are, paradoxically, pieces of a greater whole that can provide healing and unity as, in her words, “every part of us and of our world gets a seat at the table.” Taken from Ulanov’s addresses at the 2012 Fay Lectures in Analytical Psychology, Madness and Creativity stands as a carefully crafted presentation, with many clinical examples of human courage and fulfillment.

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  • Sharon Moalem: How Sex Works: Why We Look, Smell, Taste, Feel, and Act the Way We Do

     

    Sharon Moalem: How Sex Works: Why We Look, Smell, Taste, Feel, and Act the Way We Do

    “Read this book and discover sex again, but from a scientific perspective, and see why it evolved. It’s almost as much fun, and needs less energy.”
    — Peter Macinnis, author of 100 Discoveries: The Greatest Breakthroughs in History

    How Sex Works manages to inject science writing with the prurient thrill of a gossip rag.”
    O magazine

    Medical maverick and New York Times bestselling author of Survival of the Sickest Dr. Sharon Moalem presents an insightful and engaging voyage through the surprising history and evolution of sexual reproduction. Fans of Freakonomics, Blink, You: The Owner’s Manual, and Why Do Men Have Nipples will find many engaging insights in How Sex Works.

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  • Practical Resuscitation: Recognition and Response (Essential Clinical Skills for Nurses) by Pam Moule

    Practical Resuscitation: Recognition and Response (Essential Clinical Skills for Nurses) by Pam Moule
    English | Mar 21, 2005 | ISBN: 1405116684 | 301 Pages | PDF | 5.4 MB


    Resuscitation is an essential skill for nurses in every area of clinical practice. Practical Resuscitation: Recognition and Response is a beginner’s guide to practical resuscitation, which reflects current guidelines and developments in resuscitation and will enable students and newly qualified staff to develop key resuscitation knowledge and skills.

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  • Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers with Low Harmonics: Current Injection Methods

    Predrag Pejovic, “Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers with Low Harmonics: Current Injection Methods” 
    2007 | pages: 316 | ISBN: 0387293108 | PDF | 5,8 mb


    This book reviews numerous research papers published in the last fifteen years in the area of current injection based rectifiers. A partial list of coverage includes analysis of various magnetic current injection devices, the third harmonic current injection, injection networks, and optimal current injection. The book will be of interest to professionals involved in design of low-harmonic three-phase rectifiers, as well as students and researchers.

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  • Shoot the Damn Dog: A Memoir of Depression

    Sally Brampton, “Shoot the Damn Dog: A Memoir of Depression” 
    2008 | ISBN-10: 0393346080 | 342 pages | EPUB | 0,3 MB


    A searing, raw memoir of depression that is ultimately uplifting and inspiring. A successful magazine editor and prize-winning journalist, Sally Brampton launched Elle magazine in the UK in 1985. But behind the successful, glamorous career was a story that many of her friends and colleagues knew nothing about–her ongoing struggle with severe depression and alcoholism. Brampton’s is a candid, tremendously honest telling of how she was finally able to address the elephant in the room, and of a culture that sends the overriding message that people who suffer from depression are somehow responsible for their own illness. She offers readers a unique perspective of depression from the inside that is at times wrenching, but ultimately inspirational, as it charts her own coming back to life. Beyond her personal story, Brampton offers practical advice to all those affected by this illness. This book will resonate with any person whose life has been haunted by depression, at the same time offering help and understanding to those whose loved ones suffer from this debilitating condition.

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  • Analysis and Control of Linear Systems

    Philippe de Larminat, “Analysis and Control of Linear Systems”
    English | 2006 | ISBN: 1905209355 | 400 pages | PDF | 5,2 MB


    The design of automatic controls is debated in this collection of articles by engineers and mathematicians. The book provides information on both techniques for modeling linear systems made up of digital signals, and timing devices and various mathematical analyses of closed loop and predictive systems using monovariable and polynomial calculations.

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